Gewalt in der Familie und sexueller Missbrauch von Frauen und Mädchen sind in Nicaragua immer noch Tabuthemen. Unterstützen Sie die Frauenorganisationen des Landes im Kampf gegen sexuelle Gewalt mit Solidaritätsgrüßen und Appellen.

Die Betroffenen trauen sich nicht, über Vergewaltigung zu sprechen. Frauen und Mädchen, die um Hilfe bitten, werden bedroht und ausgestoßen. Werden sie schwanger und möchten die Schwangerschaft nicht fortführen, droht ihnen Gefängnis. Hilfe für Vergewaltigungsopfer, die Mütter werden, gibt es kaum.

In einem Bericht 2010 dokumentiert Amnesty International das erschreckende Ausmaß sexueller Gewalt in Nicaragua. Zwei Drittel der Opfer sind unter 17 Jahre alt, 90 Prozent der Täter sind Familienangehörige. Zu 14.000 polizeibekannten Vergewaltigungen zwischen 1998 und 2008 kommt eine ungleich höhere Dunkelziffer, weil sexuelle Gewalt weiterhin ein Tabu ist und zumeist in der Familie stattfindet. Die Regierung unterhält keine Programme, die öffentlich sexuelle Gewalt thematisieren und die soziale Stigmatisierung zu durchbrechen versuchen.

Die erst 12-jährige Alejandra, ein Opfer sexueller Gewalt @ Amnesty International

Stigmatisiert und allein gelassen

Es ist ein stilles Leiden, denn das Schweigen zu brechen, bedeutet für die Mädchen oft, auf Ablehnung zu stoßen“, sagt Amnestys Nicaragua-Expertin Esther Major. „Die Behörden müssen jetzt den gleichen Mut beweisen, wie jene tapferen Überlebenden sexuellen Missbrauchs, die mit uns gesprochen haben. Sie müssen dem Schweigen und der sexuellen Gewalt ein Ende setzen.“

Der Bericht Listen to their Voice and Act: Stop the Rape and Sexual Abuse of Girls in Nicaragua (engl., 42 S.) zeigt, wie Opfer sexueller Gewalt in Nicaragua gebrandmarkt werden. Wenn Frauen und Mädchen den Mut finden, über den Missbrauch zu sprechen, stoßen sie auf Polizisten, Strafverfolger und Richter, die sich nicht an nationale Regeln und internationale Verpflichtungen halten, wie mit Missbrauchsopfern umzugehen ist. Das derzeit geltende vollständige Abtreibungsverbot bedeutet für die betroffenen Frauen und Mädchen, ihre Schwangerschaft auch im Falle lebensbedrohlicher Umstände fortsetzen zu müssen. Ärzten sind die Hände gebunden.

Amnesty fordert die Regierung von Nicaragua auf, sicherzustellen, dass die erlebte Gewalt nicht das gesamte restliche Leben der Opfer bestimmt. „Die Regierung muss ein klares Zeichen senden, dass sexuelle Gewalt niemals die Schuld des Opfers ist, dass die Täter zur Verantwortung gezogen werden und dass den Opfern die Hilfe zukommt, die sie benötigen“, fordert Major.

Nicaragua gehört zu den ärmsten Ländern Lateinamerikas. Von fünf Millionen Menschen in dem streng katholischen Land leben 2,3 Millionen unter der Armutsgrenze. Am schlimmsten betroffen sind Kinder. Eines von drei Kindern leidet unter Mangelernährung. Von drei schulpflichtigen Kindern geht eines gar nicht in die Schule, und nur eines schließt eine Schulausbildung ab. Drei von zehn Kindern müssen zum Lebensunterhalt der Familie beitragen. Armut und Hoffnungslosigkeit sind ein idealer Nährboden für Gewalt: Insbesondere sexuelle Gewalt erfahren viele Kinder in der Familie.

Folgenschweres Verbot

Mit Blick auf die absehbaren Folgen für die medizinische Betreuung hatten 21 ärztliche Organisationen vor Beschluss des absoluten Abtreibungsverbots Ende 2006 dagegen protestiert. Auch das Anti-Folter-Komitee der UNO hat das Gesetz kritisiert. Eine Beschwerde ist seit über einem Jahr beim Obersten Gerichtshof anhängig. Das totale gesetzliche Verbot bedeutet nicht, dass keine Abtreibungen mehr stattfinden, sondern dass Abtreibungen unter riskanten Umständen durchgeführt werden. Es geht zudem einher mit einer erhöhten Müttersterblichkeit.

Im Oktober 2010 brachte der UNO-Ausschuss für die Rechte des Kindes seine Sorge über „den hohen Grad der Vernachlässigung und des Missbrauchs von Kindern, einschließlich sexuellen Missbrauchs und familiärer sowie geschlechtsrollenbedingter Gewalt“ zum Ausdruck und forderte zudem die Entkriminalisierung des Schwangerschaftsabbruchs.

Für den aktuellen Bericht hat Amnesty International seit 2008 mit 130 Betroffenen gesprochen, darunter 35 Vergewaltigungsopfer zwischen zehn und 20 Jahren, zehn Mütter von Missbrauchsopfern sowie Regierungsvertreter, Abgeordnete, Experten und Polizistinnen.

Maria (alle Namen geändert), 17, aus Managua: „Mein eigener Vater hat mich jahrelang vergewaltigt. Als er damit begann, war ich ungefähr neun, und es hörte erst auf, als ich 14 war. Ich war oft starr vor Angst – er war so gewalttätig. Er hat uns alle geschlagen, mit dem Gürtel, oder einfach mit der Hand. Ein grausamer Mann.“

Connie war erst 14, als sie schwanger wurde. Ihr Vater hatte sie jahrelang vergewaltigt. Connies Schwangerschaft deckte den Inzest auf. Daraufhin zeigte sie ihren Vater bei den Behörden an. Als die Polizei das Haus durchsuchte, schluckte der Vater eine tödliche Dosis Medikamente. Im Sterben bat er Connie um Verzeihung. Anstatt ihr zu helfen, behandelte die ganze Familie das Mädchen wie eine Aussätzige. Sie wurde eingeschüchtert und beschimpft. „Ich konnte nur mehr weinen. Die ganze Familie kritisierte und beschimpfte mich. Ich hätte meinen Vater verführt, meiner Mutter den Mann weggenommen und Schande über sie gebracht. Nach dem Selbstmord meines Vaters haben sie mich aus dem Haus gejagt und sprechen bis heute nicht mehr mit mir.“

Estefany wurde mit 17 vergewaltigt und schwanger. Kurz nach der Geburt ihres Sohnes 2008 sagte sie: “Was mir passiert ist, hat all meine Träume und Hoffnungen zerstört – ich wollte einer Arbeit nachgehen, aber ich verbringe den ganzen Tag daheim und sehe nach dem Baby.“ Zwei Jahre später erzählte sie, sie habe keinerlei staatliche Hilfe bekommen, weder Arbeit noch eine Ausbildung. Den Unterricht in Managua müsse sie bezahlen. „Die einzige Hilfe bekam ich von einer NGO.“ Trotzdem sagt Estefany: „Es ist manchmal schwer, den Glauben zu behalten. Aber ja, ich glaube, ich habe eine Zukunft.“

Zum englischen Bericht Listen to their Voice and Act: Stop the Rape and Sexual Abuse of Girls in Nicaragua

 

Werden Sie aktiv!

Unterstützen Sie den Kampf der Frauen und Mädchen in Nicaragua für ein Leben ohne sexuelle Gewalt.

Schreiben Sie an den Präsidenten von Nicaragua und verantwortliche PolitikerInnen und fordern Sie wirksame Maßnahmen zum Schutz von Frauen und Mädchen!

Appelle an:

Daniel Ortega Saavedra
Presidente de la República
Reparto El Carmen
Costado oeste del Parque El Carmen
Managua, NICARAGUA

Fax: +505 2266 3102

Anrede: Dear President / Estimado Sr. Presidente

Generalstaatsanwalt:

Dr. Julio Centeno Gómez
Fiscal General de la República
Ministerio Público de Nicaragua
Km. 4 y 1/2 Carretera a Masaya contiguo a Bancentro
Managua
NICARAGUA

Fax: +505 2255 6832

Anrede:  Dear Attorney General / Estimado Sr. Fiscal General

Familien- und Jugendministerin:

Lcda. Marcia Ramírez Mercado
Ministerio de la Familia, Adolescencia y Niñez
De donde fue ENEL Central 150 mts al Sur, (Barrio Camilo Ortega)
Managua
NICARAGUA

Fax: +505 2270 2652

Salutation: Dear Minister / Estimada Sra. Ministra

Polizeipräsidentin:

Primera Comisionada Aminta Granera
Edificio Faustino Ruiz
Frente a la gasolinera Shell, Plaza del Sol
Managua
NICARAGUA

Fax: + 505 2277 1871

Anrede: Dear Director General / Estimada Directora General

Kopie an

Botschaft der Republik Nicaragua
Frau Isolda Alicia De La Paz FRIXIONE MIRANDA DE FLORES
Gesandte und Geschäftsträgerin a.i
Ebendorferstraße 10/3/12
1010 Wien

E-Mail: embanicviena@chello.at


Musterbriefe:

Dear President Ortega,

Rape and sexual abuse are widespread in Nicaragua, and the majority of victims are young and female. More than two thirds of all rapes reported between 1998 and 2008 were committed against girls under the age of 17, and just under half involved girls aged 14 or under.

In spite of overwhelming evidence of the scale and seriousness of the problem, the Nicaraguan government is still not treating this hidden human rights emergency with the urgency it warrants, and still not complying with its national and international legal obligations to do so. Five UN expert committees have highlighted the problem and repeatedly asked the Nicaraguan government to take action on violence against women and girls, without clear results to date.

Information on where to get help is difficult to find, so that many girls remain trapped in abusive situations. Schools are not required to teach children about sexual abuse or how to seek help, so in the majority of cases, children have little idea of their rights or how to protect themselves.

There is little understanding or awareness of the problem of sexual violence in Nicaragua. The stigma associated with sexual crimes in Nicaragua means that it is often the survivor –not the abuser – who is blamed. Despite the need to change attitudes and provide information to communities, the Nicaraguan government has no public campaign to raise awareness of the problem or reduce the stigma that child rape survivors face.

For girls who do report sexual abuse or rape to the police, the justice system often fails them at every step: from reporting to investigation to court hearing. The standards of care set out by the Nicaraguan Supreme Court in its 2003 guide, the Protocol of Conduct in Crimes of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults, are not being adequately applied by police, prosecutors, forensic experts and judicial officials. State funding for justice officials’ work on sexual violence cases is insufficient.

The vitally important task of providing young rape survivors with the psychological and other support they need to rebuild their lives is carried out by NGOs. Shelters are few and far between and women’s centres receive no government funding. Many survivors are left to deal with the consequences of rape and sexual abuse alone.

Some rape survivors face the additional trauma of finding that they have been made pregnant by their attacker. For young rape survivors who choose to carry the pregnancy to term, there is little or no state support to help care for the baby or enable girls to return to education or work and pursue the plans they had for the future. For girls who would have chosen not to carry such a pregnancy to term, a 2008 law which criminalizes all forms of abortion in all circumstances, even for girls pregnant as a result of rape, has left them with no legal choice but to carry on with the pregnancy, regardless of the further suffering and anguish this may cause them.

I urge you to listen to the voices of girls who have suffered rape or sexual abuse, and act on their words by urgently developing, fully resourcing and implementing a national plan to combat sexual violence against children.

The plan should contain measures to prevent sexual violence against children; protect survivors; and ensure justice and reparation to young survivors, so that they can rebuild their lives. Please also take all necessary action to repeal the law which criminalizes all forms of abortion in all circumstances, even for rape survivors, so that girls made pregnant as a result of rape are free to make their own decisions about how to manage the consequences of rape and begin to rebuild their lives.

Yours Sincerely,


An den Generalstaatsanwalt

Dear Attorney General,

Rape and sexual abuse are widespread in Nicaragua, and the majority of victims are young and female. More than two thirds of all rapes reported between 1998 and 2008 were committed against girls under the age of 17, and just under half involved girls aged 14 or under.

In spite of overwhelming evidence of the scale and seriousness of the problem, the Nicaraguan government is still not treating this hidden human rights emergency with the urgency it warrants, and still not complying with its national and international legal obligations to do so. Five UN expert committees have highlighted the problem and repeatedly asked the Nicaraguan government to take action on violence against women and girls, without clear results to date.

Information on where to get help is difficult to find, so that many girls remain trapped in abusive situations. Schools are not required to teach children about sexual abuse or how to seek help, so in the majority of cases, children have little idea of their rights or how to protect themselves.

There is little understanding or awareness of the problem of sexual violence in Nicaragua. The stigma associated with sexual crimes in Nicaragua means that it is often the survivor –not the abuser – who is blamed. Despite the need to change attitudes and provide information to communities, the Nicaraguan government has no public campaign to raise awareness of the problem or reduce the stigma that child rape survivors face.

For girls who do report sexual abuse or rape to the police, the justice system often fails them at every step: from reporting to investigation to court hearing. The standards of care set out by the Nicaraguan Supreme Court in its 2003 guide, the Protocol of Conduct in Crimes of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults, are not being adequately applied by police, prosecutors, forensic experts and judicial officials. State funding for justice officials’ work on sexual violence cases is insufficient.

The vitally important task of providing young rape survivors with the psychological and other support they need to rebuild their lives is carried out by NGOs. Shelters are few and far between and women’s centres receive no government funding. Many survivors are left to deal with the consequences of rape and sexual abuse alone.

Some rape survivors face the additional trauma of finding that they have been made pregnant by their attacker. For young rape survivors who choose to carry the pregnancy to term, there is little or no state support to help care for the baby or enable girls to return to education or work and pursue the plans they had for the future. For girls who would have chosen not to carry such a pregnancy to term, a 2008 law which criminalizes all forms of abortion in all circumstances, even for girls pregnant as a result of rape, has left them with no legal choice but to carry on with the pregnancy, regardless of the further suffering and anguish this may cause them.

I urge you to listen to the voices of girls who have suffered rape or sexual abuse, and act on their words by taking urgent action to ensure that the 2003 Protocol of Conduct in Crimes of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults is adequately applied by police, prosecutors, forensic experts and judicial officials. Compliance with the Protocol must be monitored, to ensure that its guidance is followed properly. State funding for justice officials’ work on sexual violence cases must be increased so that justice officials can carry out the necessary work on cases of sexual violence against children.

Please also take urgent action in coordination with the Minister for the Family, Adolescence and Childhood and the National Police to ensure that girls who survive rape are protected from any threat of further abuse, and that their dignity, physical and psychological integrity, and right to life and well-being are prioritized. I ask you to ensure that strategies for protection of survivors who are at risk are developed and implemented, particularly during the investigation and trial of their attackers.

Yours Sincerely,


An die Familienministerin

Dear Minister,

Rape and sexual abuse are widespread in Nicaragua, and the majority of victims are young and female. More than two thirds of all rapes reported between 1998 and 2008 were committed against girls under the age of 17, and just under half involved girls aged 14 or under.

In spite of overwhelming evidence of the scale and seriousness of the problem, the Nicaraguan government is still not treating this hidden human rights emergency with the urgency it warrants, and still not complying with its national and international legal obligations to do so. Five UN expert committees have highlighted the problem and repeatedly asked the Nicaraguan government to take action on violence against women and girls, without clear results to date.

Information on where to get help is difficult to find, so that many girls remain trapped in abusive situations. Schools are not required to teach children about sexual abuse or how to seek help, so in the majority of cases, children have little idea of their rights or how to protect themselves.


There is little understanding or awareness of the problem of sexual violence in Nicaragua. The stigma associated with sexual crimes in Nicaragua means that it is often the survivor –not the abuser – who is blamed. Despite the need to change attitudes and provide information to communities, the Nicaraguan government has no public campaign to raise awareness of the problem or reduce the stigma that child rape survivors face.

For girls who do report sexual abuse or rape to the police, the justice system often fails them at every step: from reporting to investigation to court hearing. The standards of care set out by the Nicaraguan Supreme Court in its 2003 guide, the Protocol of Conduct in Crimes of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults, are not being adequately applied by police, prosecutors, forensic experts and judicial officials. State funding for justice officials’ work on sexual violence cases is insufficient.

The vitally important task of providing young rape survivors with the psychological and other support they need to rebuild their lives is carried out by NGOs. Shelters are few and far between and women’s centres receive no government funding. Many survivors are left to deal with the consequences of rape and sexual abuse alone.

Some rape survivors face the additional trauma of finding that they have been made pregnant by their attacker. For young rape survivors who choose to carry the pregnancy to term, there is little or no state support to help care for the baby or enable girls to return to education or work and pursue the plans they had for the future. For girls who would have chosen not to carry such a pregnancy to term, a 2008 law which criminalizes all forms of abortion in all circumstances, even for girls pregnant as a result of rape, has left them with no legal choice but to carry on with the pregnancy, regardless of the further suffering and anguish this may cause them.

I urge you to listen to the voices of girls who have suffered rape or sexual abuse, and act on their words by ensuring that survivors of sexual abuse and rape have access to comprehensive counselling, medical care, information and psychosocial legal support. The state must also ensure that young victims who are at risk if they remain in their homes have access to adequate shelter.

Please also act to guarantee that young rape and sexual abuse survivors have access to all of the information and support they need to be able to carry on pursuing their life plan with dignity, including continuing with their education or work, in accordance with their wishes. All support must be gender sensitive and girls must be fully supported to make free and informed choices on how to manage the consequences of rape, including in relation to continuation or termination of pregnancy.

Finally, I ask that you take urgent action in coordination with the Attorney General and the National Police to ensure that girls who survive rape are protected from any threat of further abuse, and that their dignity, physical and psychological integrity, and right to life and well-being are prioritized. I ask you to ensure that strategies for protection of survivors who are at risk are developed and implemented, particularly during the investigation and trial of their attackers.

Yours Sincerely,

 

An die Polizeipräsidentin


Dear Director General,

Rape and sexual abuse are widespread in Nicaragua, and the majority of victims are young and female. More than two thirds of all rapes reported between 1998 and 2008 were committed against girls under the age of 17, and just under half involved girls aged 14 or under.

In spite of overwhelming evidence of the scale and seriousness of the problem, the Nicaraguan government is still not treating this hidden human rights emergency with the urgency it warrants, and still not complying with its national and international legal obligations to do so. Five UN expert committees have highlighted the problem and repeatedly asked the Nicaraguan government to take action on violence against women and girls, without clear results to date.

Information on where to get help is difficult to find, so that many girls remain trapped in abusive situations. Schools are not required to teach children about sexual abuse or how to seek help, so in the majority of cases, children have little idea of their rights or how to protect themselves.

There is little understanding or awareness of the problem of sexual violence in Nicaragua. The stigma associated with sexual crimes in Nicaragua means that it is often the survivor –not the abuser – who is blamed. Despite the need to change attitudes and provide information to communities, the Nicaraguan government has no public campaign to raise awareness of the problem or reduce the stigma that child rape survivors face.

For girls who do report sexual abuse or rape to the police, the justice system often fails them at every step: from reporting to investigation to court hearing. The standards of care set out by the Nicaraguan Supreme Court in its 2003 guide, the Protocol of Conduct in Crimes of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults, are not being adequately applied by police, prosecutors, forensic experts and judicial officials. State funding for justice officials’ work on sexual violence cases is insufficient.

The vitally important task of providing young rape survivors with the psychological and other support they need to rebuild their lives is carried out by NGOs. Shelters are few and far between and women’s centres receive no government funding. Many survivors are left to deal with the consequences of rape and sexual abuse alone.

Some rape survivors face the additional trauma of finding that they have been made pregnant by their attacker. For young rape survivors who choose to carry the pregnancy to term, there is little or no state support to help care for the baby or enable girls to return to education or work and pursue the plans they had for the future. For girls who would have chosen not to carry such a pregnancy to term, a 2008 law which criminalizes all forms of abortion in all circumstances, even for girls pregnant as a result of rape, has left them with no legal choice but to carry on with the pregnancy, regardless of the further suffering and anguish this may cause them.

I recognize the advances which the National Police has made in recent years to tackle the problem of sexual violence in Nicaragua, particularly the establishment of the 37 Women’s and Children’s Police Stations across the country. The services which these specialized police stations provide are essential, and the existence of such stations and specially trained officers enable many more girls and women to file complaints of sexual violence.

However, despite the excellent work carried out by many committed officers at the Women’s and Children’s Police Stations, some officers both within these specialized police stations and in the wider police force do not treat young victims of sexual violence with the sensitivity and respect necessary, leaving some victims feeling that they have been re-victimized when they report crimes. In other cases, police officers do not act with due urgency to investigate and detain individuals accused of sexual abuse or rape, leaving their victims at risk of further abuse.

I urge you to listen to the voices of girls who have suffered rape or sexual abuse, and act on their words by ensuring that the standards of care set out in the Protocol of Conduct in Crimes of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults, are properly applied by all police officers, and that officers’ compliance with the Protocols is monitored.

I also ask that you take urgent action in coordination with the Attorney General and the Minister for the Family, Adolescence and Childhood to ensure that girls who survive rape are protected from any threat of further abuse, and that their dignity, physical and psychological integrity, and right to life and well-being are prioritized. Please ensure that strategies for protection of survivors who are at risk are developed and implemented, particularly during the investigation and trial of their attackers.

Yours Sincerely,